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A chapter has been dedicated to explaining this in detail. Lastly, the authors have provided ready-made forms, questionnaires, and documents that can either be used as they are or with some modifications. This up-to-date and comprehensive volume will be an invaluable guide for technicians and physicians who wish to practice sleep medicine and will be useful for sleep technology and physician training programs.

The volume is intended to complement, not be a substitute for, the AASM scoring manual, as many areas that are covered in the manual are not covered here.

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In , he received a Mini-Fellowship from the American Academy of Sleep Medicine to improve his skills in this area, and thereafter, he refined his knowledge and skills under the able guidance of Dr. Jim Walker and Dr. He has contributed chapters to various high profile academic volumes.

He is the author of both Indian and international books, including the book Psychiatry for Beginners , and has more than published articles in various peer-reviewed journals to his credit. He is engaged in imparting knowledge of sleep medicine to physicians from various streams through lectures, workshops, and training programs in his present institute. He is a well-recognized sleep researcher, both nationally and internationally, and has authored many publications.

His general area of research interest includes sleep and biological rhythms. He is a well-known editor in the field of sleep medicine and has edited over 20 volumes dealing with various sleep-related topics. He received an honorable mention in the New York Times in The Bharat Gaurav Award is usually recognition of a person who has made achievements in a particular field, which in turn will put a positive impact on the society at large.

Ahmed S. Recognized as a leading expert in the field of sleep medicine, both nationally and internationally, Prof. BaHammam established the first academic sleep disorders center in Saudi Arabia and the first Sleep Medicine Fellowship program and subsequently chaired the committee that established the Saudi regulation for accreditation of sleep medicine specialists and sleep technologists. BaHammam has organized over 20 workshops on polysomnography.

His advanced polysomnography courses have been conducted in several countries in the Middle East. He has published more than scientific articles. He is a member of the editorial boards of several international medical journals. From basic concepts about normal sleep and sleep disorders, technical information about calibration, artifacts, and various montages, to practical recommendations for managing a sleep laboratory, this atlas represents a superb reference guide. The atlas is filled with useful illustrations of actual records depicting standards for monitoring, artifacts recognition, and key findings associated with different sleep pathologies.

A compendium of review questions at the end of each chapter is extremely handy for testing new learning. Although intended primarily for sleep technologists, this atlas will serve as a useful reference for any sleep clinician, researcher, or trainee wanting to learn more about the technical and clinical aspects of evaluating sleep and sleep disorders.

The authors of this atlas, Drs.

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Ravi Gupta, S. Pandi-Perumal, and Ahmed BaHamman, are internationally known leading experts in sleep medicine and sleep research. They are to be commended for compiling this essential tool for a better understanding normal sleep and diagnosing many sleep disorders.

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This atlas is likely to remain a key reference in the field for years to come. The content is aimed primarily at sleep technologists, and is written from an Indian perspective. Aimed at individuals starting out in sleep medicine, this text provides concise, definitive information, as to how to perform most of the basic components of data acquisition and sleep scoring, and could act as reference material during the initial learning period of a sleep professional, who is performing and analyzing sleep studies.

Sleep disorders are now recognized as a major public health issue. Investigating sleep is the most challenging medical investigation as it requires background knowledge of physiology, sleep medicine, and expertise in sleep technology. The Clinical Atlas on Polysomnography has everything you want to learn or teach on sleep technology. The physiological principles of respiration, gas exchange, and the genesis of electrical potentials with color illustrations make it easy to understand for technicians.

Diagnosing sleep apnea usually requires a professional sleep study performed in a sleep clinic, because the episodes of wakefulness caused by the disorder are extremely brief and patients usually do not remember experiencing them. Instead, many patients simply feel tired after getting several hours of sleep and have no idea why.

Major risk factors for sleep apnea include chronic fatigue, old age, obesity and snoring. Fatal familial insomnia , or FFI, an extremely rare genetic disease with no known treatment or cure, is characterized by increasing insomnia as one of its symptoms; ultimately sufferers of the disease stop sleeping entirely, before dying of the disease. Somnambulism, known as sleep walking, is also a common sleeping disorder, especially among children. Older people may be more easily awakened by disturbances in the environment [] and may to some degree lose the ability to consolidate sleep.

Drugs which induce sleep, known as hypnotics , include benzodiazepines , although these interfere with REM; [] Nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics such as eszopiclone Lunesta , zaleplon Sonata , and zolpidem Ambien ; Antihistamines , such as diphenhydramine Benadryl and doxylamine ; Alcohol ethanol , despite its rebound effect later in the night and interference with REM; [] [] barbiturates , which have the same problem; melatonin , a component of the circadian clock, and released naturally at night by the pineal gland ; [] and cannabis , which may also interfere with REM. Stimulants , which inhibit sleep, include caffeine , an adenosine antagonist; amphetamine , MDMA , empathogen-entactogens , and related drugs; cocaine , which can alter the circadian rhythm, [] [] and methylphenidate , which acts similarly; and other analeptic drugs like modafinil and armodafinil with poorly understood mechanisms.

Dietary and nutritional choices may affect sleep duration and quality. One review indicated that a high carbohydrate diet promoted shorter onset to sleep and longer duration sleep than a high fat diet. Research suggests that sleep patterns vary significantly across cultures.

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The boundaries between sleeping and waking are blurred in these societies. Some societies display a fragmented sleep pattern in which people sleep at all times of the day and night for shorter periods.


In many nomadic or hunter-gatherer societies, people will sleep on and off throughout the day or night depending on what is happening. Historian A. Roger Ekirch thinks that the traditional pattern of " segmented sleep ," as it is called, began to disappear among the urban upper class in Europe in the late 17th century and the change spread over the next years; by the s "the idea of a first and second sleep had receded entirely from our social consciousness. In some societies, people sleep with at least one other person sometimes many or with animals.

In other cultures, people rarely sleep with anyone except for an intimate partner. In almost all societies, sleeping partners are strongly regulated by social standards. For example, a person might only sleep with the immediate family , the extended family , a spouse or romantic partner, children, children of a certain age, children of specific gender, peers of a certain gender, friends, peers of equal social rank, or with no one at all. Sleep may be an actively social time, depending on the sleep groupings, with no constraints on noise or activity.

People sleep in a variety of locations. Some sleep directly on the ground; others on a skin or blanket; others sleep on platforms or beds. Some sleep with blankets, some with pillows, some with simple headrests, some with no head support. These choices are shaped by a variety of factors, such as climate, protection from predators, housing type, technology, personal preference, and the incidence of pests. Sleep has been seen in culture as similar to death since antiquity; [] in Greek mythology , Hypnos the god of sleep and Thanatos the god of death were both said to be the children of Nyx the goddess of night.

Many cultural stories have been told about people falling asleep for extended periods of time. A far more famous instance of a "long sleep" today is the Christian legend of the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus , [] in which seven Christians flee into a cave during pagan times in order to escape persecution , [] but fall asleep and wake up years later to discover, to their astonishment, that the Roman Empire is now predominantly Christian. Writing about the thematical representations of sleep in art, physician and sleep researcher Meir Kryger noted: "[Artists] have intense fascination with mythology, dreams, religious themes, the parallel between sleep and death, reward, abandonment of conscious control, healing, a depiction of innocence and serenity, and the erotic.

The Sentry by Carel Fabritius. Diana and Endymion c. Lullaby by William-Adolphe Bouguereau. Victory of Faith by Saint George Hare. Flaming June c. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about sleep in humans. For non-human sleep, see Sleep non-human. For other uses, see Sleep disambiguation. Main article: Neuroscience of sleep.

For other uses, see Waking up disambiguation. Further information: Wakefulness and Ascending reticular activating system. Main article: Circadian rhythm.

Further information: Circadian rhythm sleep disorder. Main article: Sleep debt. Main article: Nap. Further information: Sleep and memory , Neuroscience of sleep , and Sleep and learning. Main article: Dream. See also: Psychological stress and Sleep. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. July Taking a Rest by Ilya Repin. Sleeping Jaguar , by Paul Klimsch. A quantitative statistical analysis of the submentalis muscle EMG amplitude during sleep in normal controls and patients with REM sleep behavior disorder. Journal of Sleep Research, 17 1 , 89— Archived from the original on 11 October Retrieved 10 December National Sleep Foundation.

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Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. Archived PDF from the original on 24 July Retrieved 17 March Sleep Medicine Reviews. Journal of Physiological Anthropology. Bibcode : PNAS.. National Center for Biotechnology Information, U. National Library of Medicine.

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Journal of Biological Rhythms. Wright, Jr. Schwartz Wehr American Journal of Physiology. L; Roth, Thomas 24 January Current Neuropharmacology. Journal of Sleep Research. Thus, the shift in the evening bedtime across cohorts accounted for the substantial decrease in sleep duration in younger children between the s and the s In Mori, Akihisa ed. Adenosine receptors in neurology and psychiatry.

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