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I feel that it takes a special person to give those words to as far as love interests go. But in my native language.. I live in and am from Key West, FL. And I love your illustrations and writing the best also! In Portugal is just like in France! Being American but lived in Italy for a bit, I would use the word love amore and people would be kind of shocked. You actually love it???? As for me, I say love all the time, I think that the word has kind of morphed into something more. I also think that here in America that hugging is like kissing on the cheek in Paris.

The only time that Americans kiss is when we real love someone. We are much more likely to hug. Les photos du Vogue brazil sont si belles et cette jeune femme mannequin rayonnante! Yeah, I understand you so well. I had a funny moment in America. I have a friend who spoke Russian but had been in US for some time.

One day we were talking and BAM! It was so funny! I saved it for special moments. That way no one got confused. I grew up in Indonesia where by reading your post the society sort of has similar ways of expressing themselves. I still feel weird when some of my girl friends say that to me. Nice post! We love each other anyway. I used to say it a lot to my ex-boyfriend, who was from Brazil. I rarely ever say it to my boyfriend now, who is Dutch, although I do love him.

I do say it to my friends the girls. See you in Switzerland maybe , one day???? I know exactly what you mean. I made exactly the same experiences like you when I was in the US. And also in Australia everybody is so much more open. There you know the whole life story of the woman at the post office, just after posting one letter. And you know what? I loved it! I became so comfortable with that attitude when I lived in Australia and the US. And what do you say to your boyfriend….

I love you to the moon and back ….. I love you Garance, thank you for inspiring us every day! God forbid. Mais aussi tellement plus gai! In America, when you express romantic love versus platonic love, the difference is in the tone of voice and body language. That is, for the first time you say it. On est plus pudique! This is so interesting. I am putting on my armchair cultural psychology cap. Another cross-cultural comparison: I am not terribly comfortable with hugs, except with those I am close to, but when I go to Peru where I work I am still uncomfortable with the cheek kisses!

Like I know I physically just have to do it, but first I have to override my brain! How embarassing. Aaah le PPPS … trop beau! Ou alors encore : Oh My Gaaaad! Quel amour de billet! Ou alors, plus parisien : Oui, pas mal, ton billet. To differentiate between the enthusiastic love of everyone and the intimacy of a relationship, I speak to my lover in a mixture of two forms: a direct, no bullshit realism that few speak in the US, and a more intimate and quiet expression of love in which we know all others are purely business. The love of everyone else is when you are on stage, and the intimate love in a relationship is back stage.

And we really love to hug! Anyone, even people we met five minutes ago! Merci Garance!!!! Il est trop chou Scott. This post is really interesting, as languages are very interesting themselves! And yes, it is true that the word love nowadays is highly devalued, some people over use it and give it a different meaning to what it actually menas.

I like your pov as a french native, it is really intresting how a little word influences your daily life and your personal relationships, and it is very cute the way you express yourself. The first time I said I loveyou to my boyfriend was really meaningful for me, but then I got my heart broken in a million pieces and now I use it more cautiously in that field because I know that when U say I love you, my heart is on my sleeve.

And as far as family goes, I barely use it, I rather demonstrate it through actions than through words- besides I know rhat if I say that to my mother I will start crying!!! I think I prefer the French way. Recognize these conversations. Europeans are just a little more sober I suppose… xx. I am a born and bred New Yorker and approach life more like your French Side although I have had my moments of jubilation.

I prefer a balance to enthusiasm…. I agree. I come from a culture which is more similar to the French coolititude. As you could imagine, the first time I got compliment from a North American, I was like…really?

I never knew this dress was that amazing…. Now I got used to it and when people giving me that kind of exclamation marks, I have my inner peace. Ha, ha! Autant dire que ce fut un vrai choc. Bizou xxx. Super ce post! And thanks on all those Parisian chic snobby tips they are tips for a francophile like me! Garance, I was so moved by this piece. I lost my beloved father in to cancer. I loved him dearly and yet the words failed to come. I could whisper it but I could never really say it to him. I still do not understand why those three little big words failed me.

Thanks for being you. Trop mignon ce post! Love this post! I was schooled on the Parisian nonchalance before I left for 4 weeks this summer. Good thing as I am a tad enthusiastic myself. Pure romance. And as for your PPS. Enclosed, curtained, sheltered, intimate. The sound of rain outside the window, the spirit and the body turned towards intimacy, to friendships and loves. One more enclosed and intimate day of friendship and love, an alcove.

Paris intimate like a room. Everything designed for intimacy. Here it is the cocktail hour. My mother recently had a similiar conversation while in Malta visiting family. Apparently I do it more natural born American than she, but it was still more than he was accustomed. It seems your man is a determined romantic. I have spent time in both Paris and New York, two of my favorite cities, very exciting cultures…. In reading this, I wonder if New York is like the performing arts and Paris is like academia? I love how expressive you are in your writing.

Bref, tu es magnifique! We used to talk to each other in english as my french is not so good, neither his spanish. After some time we reached a point were I felt the necessity to express my feelings for him. I just wanted to say to him Te quiero!! But I never found the words..

Ahhhhh language barriers, so annoying!! Garance, i feel really identify with your point of view. Ive been living in the US for a year now, im from buenos aires and it was called to my attention the same thing. How americans LOVE to emphasize everything in life. How they feel, how big they live, how big they consume, eat, shop, party, thinking if they are competitive enough, and most important how the others see you,i can go with this exagerated list of events for ever… They need to chill out a little bit. Il est cute Scott dis donc.

Ah, cest tellement vrai! Hahaaa this post made my day! When i was in Munich, i met one swiss guy from french speaking part of the country. Je comprend pas vraiment. On met sa tete ou? Ca depend de la personne? Ou de comment on la connait? Je suis francaise apres tout :. This scenario between you and your father has absolutely happened to me and my brothers, who were all raised here in the US.

Love this post Garance. Thanks for sharing. And I can totally relate with it! To much emotion! That feels a little bit false! It was really American of you. Thank you! You are one of my favorites illustrators and blogger! Congratulations and best of luck in your projects and future! Garance — I love your illustrations!! Do you use illustrator to draw them on the computer? I enjoy drawing a similar style of illustration but have difficulty translating colors and shading in illustrator.

I would love to hear what you use! I loooooove this post! You belong here in the love boat. Living in NYC for almost 22 years I have acclimated to its ways of displaying affection. May I add to the rest of the global community that in certain New York City circles, is common to kiss your friend on the lips, no french-kissing, dry and short but very affectionate. If you see it from an anthropological point of view is a way to publicly show you belong in the inner circles of a certain group.

Having been part of this inner circles I can say that it guarantees some community benefits. New Yorkers are a tight community and need each other so they make sure Love is in the air all the time. Love is like oxygen…. Fantastic post, Garance! Love the cultural differences…so subtle, but for some strange reason I get along very well with the French. I am nice myself and expect they mean well back to me. My girlfriend has difficulty with the French so she stays away from conversations. She will order her meal and sit back. I always talk and soon enough they open up and then we have a great time.

I had a coworker from France several years ago. He started every day saying hi to us all with kisses on the cheek. My patience was truly tested. We would rush in to the office and start turning on all the computers, listening to voice messages and checking the faxes. And there he would be, calmly going around to all of us — kissing each cheek. It was lovely. I am from the Midwest. I'm leaving for the week-end but I'm not sure if I should take my computer along. I want to take 2 days off from my emails but at the same time it's difficult for me not to stay away from the Internet.

What if I have to respond to an emergency? When I think I used to leave without worrying about work and now it's always on my mind! Thankfully, my family reminds me all the time that I need to learn how to relax. Ok, I've made up my mind! I'm leaving my computer at home! I'll just bring a backpack with the absolute minimum. Everyone else can wait until Monday. Actually, I can't wait to spend a week-end doing nothing and just ask questions like "where are we going to eat tonight?

Every day I look forward to the evening time when I can relax, sit outside, read a book and have a glass of wine! During the day, I work nonstop — don't think that I don't like what I do because I enjoy my work very much but it is very demanding and when 7pm comes around, I need that special time for myself. With my husband, we also look forward to having our coffee together in the morning right after we drop our child at school. It's a really nice way to start the day…Last week, I even took an afternoon off and spent that time doing things that I like to do such as swimming and shopping for some summer clothes.

At the beginning of the week, I had taken a good look at my closet and noticed that I didn't have a comfortable and light pair of pants! And while I was out shopping, I also bought a nice pair of sunglasses! I'm so excited of the idea of spending more time by the water this year. Why doesn't the government motivate the French to create their own business? On one hand, we have a great social system but we're lacking support when we feel like starting an activity. It doesn't make any sense to discourage these people who have great ideas - they could create new positions and help reduce the unemployment rate.

I wanted to quit my job but decided to wait and see if any laws are going to change soon regarding business start ups. After having talked with many people, I've decided that I need to do an immersion programme in France for a few weeks. It's the only way! I'm very motivated and even though my mother is not encouraging me to learn another language — I've made up my mind! After having surfed for hours on the Internet, I finally found a place. It looks serious and interesting. This company places you in a family and before choosing the family, they have an interview with you. After having spoken to the programme organiser, I was convinced about the course.

In order to finish this project, we need to recruit another person. Even though I love coming to France, I also want to discover other countries… 3. Because of the strong winds, we cannot leave the chairs outside. Thanks to our kind neighbours, we're able to leave our cat home while we go on holiday. Because of the traffic, we are late - we apologise! Thanks to your great and fresh products, I made a fantastic dinner. Before I called you, I was ordering some flowers. Thanks to your generosity, we will be able to come on this trip. My husband is busy. I am going to be very busy today. She could not talk, she was busy.

My agenda is busy. The road is busy today. We are going to find another bar, this one is too busy. My weekend is going to be busy. The bathroom is busy. This party is going to be busy. We are busy at the office. Don't come in, it's busy! After having eaten his sandwich, he left the room. Telling the truth is very important. Before having a cup of tea, I want to prepare my speech. People writing blogs need to share their lifes. Running is good for health. Before listening to this song, they want to sing it. Watching documentaries is much more interesting than watching american movies.

Trying to take a glass in the cupboard, he felt on the floor. Crying in order to have what we want is not the best solution. After having written his book, this writer understood that it was a big mistake. After having discovered South America, he changed radically. Before going for a long walk, you need to be sure you are fit.

People taking care of the nature understood what is really important for their children. I hope that rich people always running after money realize how pleasant it is to sit down and to contemplate the world. How do you feel? Enjoy your evening 3. Smashing, great! You are very nice. You are too kind. They are so naughty the dogs.

It seems bizarre. He seems sad. I do not know how he feels What should I do? What must I do? I don't care! That's good! That's bad That tastes good Its disgusting It doesn't matter You too in response to have a good day for example You've got the wrong number You're right I don't get it! What's new?

Do the right thing! Don't feel bad! This feels good This feels right I like him — he's a nice guy This looks great on you! It's not quite the situation… This doesn't make sense! Something is not right Do it by yourself. Take it easy. I am fed up with it. Make it better. Do your best. I can't believe it. You must be joking. This meal looks delicious! What does it mean? What I mean is… 4. I feel very tired this afternoon. How do you say? He seems in a good mood today. I love the sound of that. It seems silly to ask you this but how should I say………..

Does that look funny to you? They seem to go together very well. I'm overwhelmed with paperwork — can we meet later? I feel confident about the success of this project! I remember seeing you a long time ago! It seems strange — I think that we should make some research. He shouldn't any trouble finding us!

You should have a rest for while! How do you feel about John's situation? I need to catch up with the work. I feel confused — it doesn't make any sense; can please clarify? What I would like to tell you is a secret. C'est tout bon? Oui, tout baigne! Ravi de faire votre connaissance. Profitez de vos vacances! Bon courage avec tout ce travail! Tout va bien? C'est tout ce qu'il vous faut? J'en ai marre! Ce n'est rien. Il n'y a pas de mal. Tu me fatigues. Tu peux faire mieux. Tu vas y arriver.

One must have a couple of Credit Cards in case one doesn't work anymore while you're on the trip. You should have health insurance coverage. You need to make sure that you carry with you every single document confirming the hotel bookings. You ought to pack light so that you don't have to worry about carrying heavy loads.

You should take an extra empty bag with you in order to fill it with all the souvenirs you will purchase. You should have all your Internet Access codes if you wish to get on the Internet and read your emails or your banking information. Make sure you pack comfortable shoes and clothes. Don't forget to take your address book.

Get yourself a digital camera and make sure you have plenty of memory space in it. You should not create a tight timetable, you should give yourself full days to do whatever you wish — be spontaneous at times You need to pack some medicine, just in case! Finally, you need to have tons of fun — Holidays are sacred as the French would say!

It's necessary to wash the clothes. It's necessary to take some time for relaxation. It's necessary to import fruits and vegetables in Scotland. It's necessary to own a car here in this part of the country. It's necessary to think about retirement. It's necessary to work everyday. I must drive everyday. I must call my parents every week. La nourriture 2. Les devoirs 3. Le comportement durant les repas 5. Les bonbons 6. L'ordinateur 7. Les amis 8. Le travail Les vacances Les voyages en train, etc Pendant le repas, comment doit-on se comporter?

Est-ce que les enfants peuvent acheter des bonbons? Est-ce qu'ils peuvent utiliser l'ordinateur? Est-ce qu'ils doivent faire du sport? Est-ce qu'ils peuvent inviter des amis? Est-ce qu'ils doivent partager leurs jouets avec les amis? Est-ce que vous devez prendre la voiture tous les jours pour aller au boulot?

Faut-il porter un costume cravate ou un tailleur pour les femmes au travail? Est-ce qu'il faut recevoir des clients? Doit-on manger son lunch au travail ou est-ce que vous pouvez aller au restaurant? Est-ce qu'il faut travailler plus de 35 heures par semaine? Est-ce que vous devez embaucher une autre personne pour vous aider?

What I remember is the last part of the movie, not the beginning. You should think about what you are saying! What we need is a new car. He will see what we mean later. We know what we would like — a bottle of Bordeaux! What I understand is that you don't want to work anymore. What we decided to do is to retire in France. What I'm fed up with is the heavy tax system! What she wants is a new house. I don't understand what you're saying!

I don't understand what you are talking about! What I see is the truck, not the car. I know what you like to do! What I am afraid of is to lose my job. What is nice in France is the quality of life! What is not working is the computer! What I would like to tell you is a secret! Je vois des oiseaux sur l'arbre. Nous avons une voiture. Il y a des chats dans le jardin. J'ai de l'argent dans ce compte en banque. J'ai le temps de me reposer aujourd'hui. Je travaille avec les clients. Tu as besoin d'un chapeau.

J'ai des enfants. J'aime manger des escargots. J'ai quelque chose dans la poche de mon pantalon. J'ai un chien. C'est parfait pour mon style de vie! Je veux une nouvelle maison. Est-ce que vous avez bu un kir hier soir? Faites-vous encore du sport? Vous mangez du pain tous les jours? Est-ce que vous fumez encore? Est-ce que vous faites de la peinture pour faire un joli dessin au mur?

Aimez-vous encore la musique rock? Est-ce que vous comprenez le russe? Vous avez vu quelque chose dans la rue? Est-ce que vous buvez du sirop de mangues tous les matins? Est-ce que vous connaissez quelqu'un qui est astronome? Vas-tu parfois au Mac Donald? Est-ce que vous faites une sieste tous les jours? Connaissez-vous quelqu'un de ma famille? Tu fumes de la marijuana? Est-ce tu entends quelqu'un qui marche dehors maintenant? Avez-vous entendu quelque chose cette nuit?

Est-ce que tu vas de temps en temps faire du jogging? Avez-vous des peintures de Picasso chez vous? Est-ce que vous parlez de temps en temps avec des Japonais en France? Connaissez-vous quelqu'un qui travaille dans la Maison Blanche? Est-ce que tu as quelque chose dans la poche de ton pantalon? Tu as mis un short hier pour aller au travail? Est-ce que tu vois quelqu'un dans ton jardin? Est-ce que vous avez une bonne raison pour refuser une offre aussi exceptionnelle? Did you do anything special last evening?

Did you watch any interesting movies this week? Did you ask your neighbour for something yesterday? Did you speak with any new French person this week?

Did you meet anyone lately who owns a Ferrari? Did you receive any postcards from any friends? Did you buy anything new for your wardrobe this week? Are you still anxious when you have something unusual to do at work? Did you loose anything recently? Did you feel like working yesterday? Did you spend a lot of time on your homework? Does the restaurant open often in the evenings? Did you spent a lot of time in England? Did you often feel like going to a French restaurant when you were in Brazil?

Did your children quickly learn French? Are you still afraid of travelling by plane? Did you fully enjoy your profession? Have you ever thought of living in another country? Did you really enjoy the last play you saw? Did you carefully check the answers of your homework? Je veux plus de bonbons. Je ne veux plus de ballons.

Je veux plus de cailloux pour ma collection. Je suis heureuse pour toi. Je n'ai pas d'endroit particulier. Annie : I'm furious with my mother!

French/Grammar/Print version

Jean : Why? Annie : She tells me that she's moving to France on her own! It' rubbish! She cannot speak the language, she doesn't understand their culture and she is too old now! Jean : Well, it might just be an idea and she might change her mind in a few days. Annie : Oh I don't know, she seems very serious.

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I need to go out and go for a walk! She irritated me. Jean : Where are you going for your walk? Annie : Anywhere — I need to empty out my head! I'll go somewhere calm. Jean : Before you leave, I was thinking that we should plan a trip for the end of the month — what do you think? Annie : Oh yes, I need to go away for a few days! Which destination? Jean : Anywhere — I'm flexible! Annie : When do you want to leave? Jean : Anytime! What suits you? Annie : It doesn't matter! I'm flexible also! Jean : I was perhaps thinking of going to either Istanbul, Egypt or Lisbon!

Which one would you prefer! Annie : Any of them would be great! You choose! Jean : Who should I talk to at the travel agency? I'm going there this afternoon! Annie : You can speak to anyone — they're all fantastic! Jean : OK — go to your walk now and don't worry about your mother!

Annie : She always worries me! OK, see you later! Have they already phoned me? I don't think so They should always call before coming! Do still have some more mangoes? They were delicious last time I bought some! Unfortunately, we don't have anymore mangoes! We should get some next week. I don't want to go to this restaurant anymore, it is too crowded! I told you already Have you ordered my soup yet?

You're kidding! The cook is still picking the vegetables Le voisin : Ah bonjour! Je suis Didier Martin. Le voisin : Ah bon! Le voisin : Vous aimez le quartier? Carole : Oui, je comprends. Un peu trop pour moi aussi! Le voisin : Avec plaisir. Pendant le week-end. Depuis combien de temps fais-tu du tennis? Depuis 15 ans, au moins! Il y a 6 mois seulement.

Quand sera votre prochain rendez-vous professionnel? Dans combien de temps sont vos prochaines vacances? Votre prochain voyage durera combien de jours? Vous faites du jogging depuis combien de temps? Vous conduisez depuis longtemps? Quand comptez-vous y retourner? Dans combien d'heures sera votre prochain repas? Et en combien de temps? Quand est le prochain cours? When did you have a dinner party at your place? When is your next visit to a wine cellar? How long did you stay in ? How long have been in ? In how many weeks or months will you move?

When did you go to Brazil and how long did you stay there? How long ago did you leave England? How long have you lived in France? When did you buy your car? How long have you lived with your companion? How long will you be travelling in September? How long did your stay at the Doctors last time you went?

Peter is playing tennis almost non stop until Sunday. My birthday is in May. We are going to see my parents for the weekend. What are you doing during the summer? My friend has been living in Canada for two years. I have been waiting for you since seven o'clock. Log In Sign Up. Jane Weston. A key early example of such spirit was a parodical, but genuine advertisement that appeared in Hara-Kiri mensuel in December 1 Editorial cartoons are deined for these purposes as single-framed cartoons intended to provide some kind of commentary on real-life events.

European Comic Art 2. Principle number one. Not even your own mother, not the Jewish martyrs, not even people starving of hunger… Laugh at everything, ferociously, bitterly, to exorcise the old monsters. It would pay them too much respect only to approach them with a straight face.

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Interview of 29 January This has, to an extent, ofset its now frequently lacklustre engagement with libertarian and provocative humour as a guarantor of continuity. It continues to engage with current afairs through various forms of cartoon art. Its front cover photographs were exemplary in this respect, becoming increasingly shocking and facetious as the decade progressed.

An example of such covers is a photograph of a naked woman wrapped in an enormous coil of boudin March I craved great, vengeful sneering laughter, I had no outlet for my ferocities […] I wanted to be Rabelais, I wanted to be Ubu, and the only thing I was given to do 10 was to keep young children smiling. See G. Verlant et al. The violence of its graphic style and expression made this period the golden age of caricature. There was no editorial cartooning, however, given that Hara-Kiri eschewed direct engagement with politics and current afairs.

Nonetheless, the audacity of its sexually explicit and amoral tone in the context of Gaullist France made it subject to government censorship on two occasions in the s. The second ban, largely ignored in the press, elicited support in the form of a petition from various cultural heavy-weights such as Jean-Paul Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir. Fred and Topor were both major contributors to Hara-Kiri but left the group before the creation of Charlie hebdo. To the Slaughterhouse!

On se marrait de la mort. We laughed about death. Hara- Kiri hebdo was therefore launched in with the aim of meeting the new priorities of the readers. There was therefore a particularly strong basis for cross-fertilisation between the genres in their work, as relected in the pages of Charlie hebdo. Many of the Hara-Kiri group became explic- itly politically engaged in their work for the irst time as a result of May 68, linking their provocative humour to the spirit of the movement with an increas- ingly sincere militancy that had previously been absent in Hara-Kiri, in the context of a highly morally conservative society.

There was a wave of freedom, utopia and humour in it all. The posters were beautiful, it was very exciting, the streets, the barricades. The side of brutal, absolute, shocking and hygienic humour. The headline cross-referenced the tragic events of a few weeks previ- ously, in which over 40 young people had been killed at a ire in a discotheque at Saint-Laurent-du-Pont. It was Georges Bernier who thought of the headline. Such a front-page cover was unusual, its lack of cartoon making it a somewhat ironic point of singular notoriety for the humour of a group whose work was usually so entrenched in cartooning.

Ziv, ed. See in particular page See Parisis, Reiser, Cabu lost the case but received a ine of only francs, rather than the sum origi- nally demanded. For instance, in elements of the work of Reiser and Cabu, rather than creating multiple panels, they would often convey complex narrative in multi-layered, luid stages within a large single panel sometimes taking up a whole page. It started with Hara-Kiri, where we wanted to express ourselves 28 with a kind of writing, a sort of counterpoint to our black, cutting humour. I carry out my trade as a cartoonist. Favoured topics included the defence of the environment, anti-militarism, the ridicule of religion, and animal rights issues.

The unusually strong impact of this revived aesthetic of editorial cartooning was felt on various occasions when its insolence leaked beyond the pages of the newspaper. Because readers are unfaithful scoundrels. Always looking for novelty. The newspaper thus ultimately failed to renew itself suiciently in a changed societal context. We had cleared a path for it. It began to do every day what Charlie hebdo did. It gave out the parallel information we were used to giving. Bernier was a notable exception, however, as he was not approached as a collaborator and remained estranged from the newspaper up to his death in It was the patrimonial value of the title that made for its immediate success.

He unsuccessfully sued for the rights in , which were attributed by the judge to Cavanna. All those people who tried to convey ideas through their jokes, not simply to make 43 people laugh, and then nothing. Many contributors were allocated a regular slot in the newspaper to ill as they pleased, with the remainder of the space being shared by its journalists and used for collaborative pieces.

The work of the cartoonist Luz was often printed in such a format. Et alors? The publishing 52 programme will include archive material and original creations. The fact that the newspaper was willing to print this in the direct aftermath of the event situates it within a mode of humour that is usually only found in informal, anonymous contexts, such as drinking venues or on the internet, as explored by sociologist Elliott Oring. On a fait avancer le droit de la presse. Il y a des jurisprudences sur Charlie hebdo. We have contributed to the advancement of press law.

There are jurisprudences relating to Charlie hebdo. Con was a clearly inlammatory term, but also one which reso- nated with the predilection for the use of con as an adjective within Hara-Kiri and the old Charlie hebdo to describe the abject quality of humanity in general. Alongside that of numerous other politicians and prominent public igures, 55 Interview of 2 February Fais autre chose!

Do something else! It was probably never in great danger of losing, given the absence of blasphemy laws in France, but this did not detract from the media attention the case attracted. Tensions had long existed between Val and certain other contributors to Charlie hebdo, who still strongly valued, wherever possible, a more global, taboo-breaking and anarchic content. His work was simply faxed in on a weekly basis.

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For Val, this comment perpetuated an odious form of anti-Semitic stereotype by linking Judaism with inancial success. His removal from Charlie hebdo generated both widespread reader- ship uproar, which was often vented on the internet, and intense discussions in the media, which went on throughout the summer of Charlie hebdo est mort. Pourquoi conserver ce titre? Val de changer le nom de son journal. Charlie hebdo is dead. Why keep this title? The label is misleading, even deceptive. As a historian of the Charlie hebdo of the s, I solemnly request Mr Val to change the name of his newspaper.

Moi, Cavanna. Me, Cavanna. I breathed into it my conception of humour and critique, all of that. When circumstances meant I became a simple collaborator, I kept in line with the common discipline. This is why I am defending this newspaper with all my strength, all my convic- tion. The satirical taboo-breaking of Hara-Kiri in the s was almost unique to the publication at the time, but today pseudo-acts of provocation are appropriated even in advertising culture, to the point of becoming a standardised, ubiquitous and pleasure-driven carnivalesque orthodoxy.

They talk about the evolution of political caricature in France, difering reactions of people to being caricatured by a cartoonist or being ilmed, and the use of arche- types in caricature. Cabu also discusses the inluences of other cartoonists on his own art, the high points of his cartooning career, his cartoon reportages, and various book publications of his work.

The most obvious function of the game of caricature is to provide a critical deforma- tion that tends to reform or to abolish what it deforms. Those were the Pompidou and Giscard years, with the media bottled up and government ministers who called up journalists on the editorial boards of the public news media.

Notes by the translator Mark McKinney are indicated as such Trans. All others are by Tanitoc, from the original French version. The quotation is from page Both European Comic Art 2. So what is so special about the idea of a confrontation between reality and a drawing, to create a narrative aimed at a multitude of readers? Some day one must write the history of all the cartoonist reporters, who, from Jules Grand- jouan to Ronald Searle, via Feliks Topolski, crossed social and geographical fron- tiers to capture words and gestures, thanks to their eloquent drawings.

In Cabu went to Nantes to view the Jules Grandjouan exhibit: it seemed wise to compare their work of cartoon reportage for the press and to speak with someone who has been a key player in the history of the satirical press in France since the s, focusing especially in this interview on his work as a reporter.

Cabu: Yes, and town-hall meetings.